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, 28 2014
Business plan for the company to grow and sell mushrooms Print

Business plan for the company to grow and sell mushrooms

In Russia, almost everyone - mushroom. Housewives in the fall is salted, dried and pickled mushrooms, and winter for any holiday table, these crispy hats, legs - the best snack. It would seem, to engage in the mushroom business in our country - that still sell drinking water in the spring. Nevertheless, the mushroom experts call one of the most profitable agricultural activities.

And, oddly enough, it was the winter it is most advantageous to start a business, while summer is better to spend collecting the necessary documentation and organizational issues. I must say that all the familiar mushrooms, boletus and even white will never be able to compete with farm oyster mushrooms, which will be discussed. Other "home" mushrooms, mushrooms, more capricious, and their growing quite time-consuming and costly. First, the oyster, as opposed to "competing" mushrooms are grown artificially - the risk run into them at random among the toadstool is much less than that of fungi collected in the forest. In addition, each year an increasing demand for environmentally friendly products - here, too, fall oyster mushrooms can be very useful: no chemical treatments are not subject to, and certainly artificial dyes and preservatives do not contain. Secondly, the oyster is not only tasty and nutritious, but also suitable in almost any dish: they can be boiled, fried, salt, pickling, use the first and second dishes, salads. There are more than a hundred recipes for oyster, not only have information that they take the radionuclides from the human body, breast cancer cells, normalize blood pressure. But the main advantage of mushroom growing - this business can be started, so to speak, from scratch. For example, an entrepreneur from Belarus Viktor Chikuenok in 2000, the costs of organizing the production of only about $ 350. At the same Dmitrov near Moscow Sergey Panfilov going at it six years ago in a big way. He argues that to establish the company average power in leased areas less than five thousand dollars. Germinating mycelium

Of course, require paperwork - the usual package needed for the production of any food product. Need a room. There room for choice wide - fits with a rustic house and barn and cellar and greenhouse, and an abandoned industrial building. In the end, at first, mushrooms can be grown even in a city apartment.

The very process of mushroom production consists of four stages: production of inoculum (mycelium), the preparation of the substrate or, more simply, the bags with a nutrient medium and mycelium, and, finally, implementation, in our case, oyster. Aspiring entrepreneurs, mushroom pickers often take up mushroom cultivation. Larger manufacturers, in addition, do all the preparation of substrate blocs. But they get mycelium separately from specialized firms laboratories. It is important that the inoculum in the parlance of selhoztruzhenikov, "had a good germination. At this stage it is not worth the risk: if production will be expensive, but with guaranteed quality. At the mushroom market, this product is often a Hungarian - for example, by "Sylvan", but there are native seeds. Among their producers known Saratov "Santana." And although its mycelium inferior germination Hungarian, but it has substantial advantages: less four times. Sergey Panfilov preference for "Santana", introduces five percent of the seed instead of the half to two-and considers that it is more profitable.

Oyster mushroom - wood-destroying fungi, grows on deciduous trees and their filings, but no worse feeling and a straw, sunflower husks on and even the cabbage stalk of corn. Mostly mushroom cooking substrate blocs use straw or fire (waste of flax). The farm Panfilov carefully monitored to ensure that raw materials were adequate moisture without clogging, not infected. Blocks are made in a special sterile room, and all of the checks in his own small laboratory. Victor Chikuenok on the production of substrate said simply: zaparivayutsya in hot water, chopped straw or sawdust, then in a plastic bag (40h80sm) fits cooled raw materials mixed with mycelium (total weight of 10-12 kg), packing ties up and put on the shelf in the dark at 18 -20 degrees. And then - the process of growing oyster: a 16-20 days in bags made at the slots there are small clusters. At this time all the blocks are transferred to another compartment, where their 12 hours a day light, constantly aerate, observe the temperature of 10-16 degrees and humidity is necessary. For the week of mushrooms grow to marketable size. You can remove the harvest and return the bags to the original premise. Week of rest - and the blocks again ready to bear fruit. The same raw material gives three waves of the harvest, after which the substrate must be changed. Details

Of course, we are only talking about the general scheme of the process. It is important to know all the details. To this end published by specialized literature, there are training courses, Interregional Association of mushroom seminars to exchange experiences. But many people do not take up the whole cycle of distillation of mushrooms at once. There are farms that sell ready-substratum blocks, and beginners often do a mushroom cultivation of mushrooms and delivery of finished products in the same industry. At first glance, the profits from such activities is low. Here is a rough calculation: Panfilov firm sells blocks of 60 rubles per desyatikilogrammovy bag. It guarantees receipt of two pounds of mushrooms fruiting in three waves, ie a half months. Here we take the products from affiliated vendors to 40 rubles per kilogram. Thus, during this period can be sold for 20 rubles a sack.

Indeed, a little bit. But we must bear in mind that at first the entrepreneur is important not only to quickly recoup the production of many break-even start the process, earn their own sales channels, to gain experience. And when it is fully debugged, think about expanding. However, at the same numbers can be looked at from the other side. Ten bags rarely buys a large amount of give and greater profits: for example, 400 units - is 8000 rubles. And this amount can be tripled if the master all the stages of production. Indeed, in the case of buying pre-engineered all the profit is divided into three: get her and the producers of the substrate, and those who grow the mushrooms, and those who resells them. Another important component of success - experience. Knowledgeable mushroom can shorten fruiting prior to the month to make the cost of one kilogram is equal to 12.6 rubles, and sold products to four times more expensive.

And on the revenue. Victor Chikuenok talks about the so-called "co-opportunities" of its receipt. Belarusian mushroom, oyster mushroom cultivation in addition to direct, engaged, and even selling "mushroom stumps: a wooden chock drills holes, places they spawn - and here's the summer version of the breeding of fungi. According to him, such stumps for vacationers in all recorded. A waste bags with mycelium had bought up the population to feed the pet, and as a fertilizer for vegetable gardens (yield of cucumber is increased by 30 per cent). Someone builds their own processing: pickling and canning. Someone opens a fee-paying courses, which teaches wanting to grow oyster mushrooms at home. Many, like Panfilov, taken for the sale of ready-made substrate blocs and the organization of subsidiary companies gribovodcheskogo economy - ways to improve the profitability of many. It all depends on the ability and desire seized to work. As recognized by the same Chikuenok his firm works with 100-percent profitability. For comparison, a nearby grocery store has only a one percent rate of return, a local dairy - seven percent, and all Agri districts generally unprofitable. Podmoskovny same mushroom Panfilov believes that the profit depends on the degree of technical production equipment. Having an engineering education, he independently designed, automatic sprinkler system, ventilation, maintaining the temperature regime, established a special source of steam, etc. Let the market

But even the most promising business may be considered futile without a well-functioning markets. The big plus of domestic mushroom production - an almost complete absence of competition. This business has not yet spread too widely, so the mushrooms take to hunting and restaurants, and cafes and a network of food shops and market wholesalers. And the greatest demand is the product of the cold season, when people own stocks are depleted. If you fall you can talk about the purchase price of approximately 50 rubles per kilogram, in the winter months it rises to at least 60.

Opportunities for further development of the mushroom market in Russia is extremely high: according to the statistics, so far a Russian ate in a month only 300 grams of mushrooms, while Belgian time to consume the same period of 4 kilograms. Not even taking into account the huge difference between the population of Russia and Belgium, we get more than trinadtsatikratnuyu difference in per capita consumption! Accordingly, the Russian market is ready, at least, to trinadtsatikratnomu expansion and waits for its new players.

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